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Overview

Primary bone cancer (Bone Sarcomas), which begins in the bone is a rare cancer. Bone cancer can begin in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the long bones in the arms and legs.

More commonly we encounter metastatic bone cancer, which is a cancer of other organs that has spread to the bone.

Warning signs

  • Bone pain
  • Swelling and tenderness near the joint
  • Difficulty in normal movements
  • Broken bone
  • Fatigue
  • Unintended weight loss

Risk factors

Most of the patients who develop bone cancer do not have any risk factor. However, certain factors are associated with an increased risk, including:

  • Inherited genetic syndromes like Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Hereditary Retinoblastoma
  • Paget's disease of bone that occurs mostly in older adults
  • Exposure to large doses of radiation, such as those given during radiation therapy for cancer, increases the risk of bone cancer in the future

Progression

  • Stage I: The tumor is low grade, has not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.
  • Stage II: The tumor is high grade but has not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.
  • Stage III: Multiple tumours in the primary bone site, but they have not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV: Tumors have spread to the lung(s) and/or other organs besides lungs

Diagnosis

Primary diagnosis

Medical history, Physical examination

Secondary diagnosis

Imaging tests like radiographs, MRI and/or CT scan, Biopsy (sample of tissue from the tumour)

Advanced diagnosis

Bone scan, PET scan, CT scan of chest etc.

Treatment in a nutshell

Surgery is the main treatment for bone cancers. Some bone cancers like Osteosarcomas and Ewings sarcomas require courses of chemotherapy before and after surgery.

Limb sparing surgeries, which remove the cancer cells but allow you to keep optimal use of your leg or arm are the most common surgeries performed for the management of these tumours. Reconstruction after tumour removal is usually done with Megaprosthesis or recycling of tumour bone with re-implantation.

Milestone

We at Kokilaben Hospital are using state of art techniques for limb salvage surgeries like modular megaprosthesis, recycling of tumour bones with re-implantation into the patients, rotationplasty and extendible prosthesis for children.

Reported outcome

Reported outcome

Stage I/II 70-75%
Stage IV Survival is better when the disease spread is limited to lungs

Top tips

  • Bone sarcomas can occur at any age but are more common during growth phase
  • If you have any risk factors, it is a good idea to discuss them with your healthcare provider.

Our Team

  • Dr. Manish Pruthi

    MS Ortho (PGIMER, Chandigarh); DNB Ortho, Fellowships: Musculoskeletal Oncology (TMH, Mumbai), Diploma Tissue Banking (NUS, Singapore)

    Department

    Bone & Joint , Cancer

    Speciality Interests

    • Musculoskeletal Oncology
    • Bone tumours

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