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Platelet Donation

Platelet Donation

Overview

Platelet donations are to be done only as per the requirement of the patient as the shelf life of the product is only 5 days. The donors have to be identified and kept ready for platelet donation at the need of hour.

What are Platelets?

Platelets are the smallest cell elements in the bloodstream that help in stopping bleeding by formation of a plug at the site of breach/injury.

What are different types of Platelet Products?

There are Random donor platelets (RDP) & Single donor platelets (SDP). RDP is obtained by processing whole blood donation. One unit of RDP contains >5.5X1010 platelets with a volume of 50-70ml. An adult patient would require 6 to 8 such units at a time to correct thrombocytopenia. A SDP is obtained from a single donor by aphaeresis technology. The volume of product is 200-300ml with platelet content of >3X1011. Single unit is sufficient as an adult dose.

What is Single Donor platelet donation?

The specialized blood collection process, by which only platelets are separated & collected from Whole blood with the help of automated cell separator machine. The procedure is known as plateletpheresis & the product obtained is termed as Single Donor Platelet( SDP) .The tested & screened donor on patient's requirement is taken up for the procedure. Sterile integral tubing set is loaded & primed on the machine (one time use).The donor parameters are fed to the machine. The donor is connected to the machine using 17 gauze sterile needles either one arm (Single needle procedure) or both the arms (Double needle procedure) with all aseptic precautions. The whole blood is processed in the machine as per the donor parameters to give a product with a platelet yield of at least 3X1011 or greater suspended in plasma of volume 200-500ml.

The eligibility criteria for platelet donations

  • Minimum weight : 55 kg
  • Hemoglobin level : 12.5 gm%
  • Age limit for blood donation is 18 years to 65 years.
  • Time interval of 3 months should be elapsed between two successive blood donations.
  • One should eat sufficiently before blood donation.
  • A voluntary blood donor should be free from any infectious disease before donating blood.
  • A voluntary blood donor should have no history of seizure disorder, any heart and lungs related diseases.
  • A healthy donor should disclose any medication to medical officer which he is taking before donating blood.
  • A donor should avoid heavy work or long driving after blood donation.
  • Exact hemoglobin level, haematocrit & platelet count should be checked prior to donation. Platelet count should be 150x103/microliter or above.
  • Donor should be free from transfusion transmitted diseases i.e. Hepatitis B & C, HIV, Malaria & Syphilis.

Criteria for Single Donor platelet donation

  • The donor should preferably be a repeat donor – might have given blood 1-2 times earlier.
  • The donor should have a prominent visible vein on the front of the arm.
  • Age of the donor should be between 18 – 55 years.
  • Weight of the donor should be >55kg
  • Hemoglobin – 12.5 g/dl or more.
  • Platelet count of the donor should be more than 1.5 lakhs per microlitre.
  • Interval between two platelet donation should be atleast one week. One should not donate platelet more than 24 times in a year.
  • A platelet donor should not eat oily food before platelet donation.

Screening of the donor for plateletpheresis

The donor for plateletpheresis like that of a blood donor undergoes a hemoglobin screening, a confidential medical history and physical examination in which temperature, pulse rate & hemoglobin will be checked. Blood samples will be collected for complete blood count, HIV, HBsAg, HCV, VDRL and Malaria. The results are valid only for 7 days to 1 month. If the platelet donation is after I month, donors sample is tested again for the above parameters.

Some facts a platelet donor should know:

  • Should not smoke before platelet donation.
  • Should not take oily rich/ fatty foods before donation.
  • Avoid aspirin for 72 hours before donating.
  • For serial plateletpheresis interval between two procedures should be at least 72 hours.
  • Donor can donate platelets two times in a month OR 24 times in a year.
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