Physical therapy is a health care profession which provides services to individuals to develop maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout life. It includes examination, advice and instructions to any person with movement or bodily malfunction, physical disorder, disability, physical and mental conditions using physical agents including exercise, mobilization, manipulation, mechanical and electrotherapy. The individualized, "hands on" approach that characterizes physical therapist care is highly valued by patients. The physical therapist and the patient work side-by-side to make sure that the goals are met. Therapeutic exercise and functional training are the cornerstones of physical therapy treatment.
Occupational Therapy incorporates meaningful and purposeful occupation (activity) to enable people with limitations or impairments to participate and achieve independence in everyday life. Occupational therapy relies on understanding the importance of an activity to an individual, the physical, mental and social components of the activity, and then adapting the activity, the environment, and/or the person to enable them to resume the activity. Occupational therapists assist clients in performing activities of daily living, improve their basic motor functions, strength and endurance but also to compensate for permanent loss of function by training how to use adaptive equipments, including wheelchairs, orthotics, and aids for eating and dressing. Their goal is to help clients have independent, productive, and satisfying lives.
The various electro-physical agents are used as an adjunct in early rehabilitation by providing pain relief, restoring integrity of connective tissue, retarding muscle atrophy by maintaining the strength & improving motor control and retraining for neuromuscular dysfunctions. The different form of electrotherapeutics modalities available are: thermal modalities like hot & cryotherapy, paraffin wax bath and infrared therapy; different dorms of electrical currents such as transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, interferential therapy, Faradic current, interrupted Galvanic current, electromagnetic wave and short wave diathermy and microwave diathermy; laser, therapeutic ultrasound therapy and Biofeedback.
Speech & Language Pathology deals with disorders that affect a persons speech, language, cognition, and swallowing and planning intervention strategies for them to better their quality of life. Communication includes speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) and language; including reading and writing, and non-verbal and alternative methods of communication for patients who have been stripped of conventional methods of communication. The clientele consists of children with language delay, post stroke / brain injury or disease induced speech and language disorders, training for the hearing impaired, voice and articulation difficulties following a head & neck pathology and swallowing problems following brain injury or disease, head or neck problems.
Exercise Physiology is the identification of physiological mechanisms underlying physical activity, the comprehensive delivery of treatment services concerned with the analysis, improvement, and maintenance of health and fitness, rehabilitation of heart disease and other chronic diseases and or/ disabilities, and the professional guidance and counsel of athletes and others interested in athletics, sports training, and human adaptability to acute and chronic exercise.
Psychology is the study of people: how they think, how they act, react and interact. It investigates the depths and complexities of the mind. A Clinical Psychologist works with people with mental or physical health problems or help emotionally distressed people adjust to life. Typical work activities include: assessing a clients needs, abilities or behavior using a variety of methods, including psychometric tests, interviews and direct observation of behavior; offering therapy for difficulties relating to anxiety, depression, addictions, social and interpersonal problems, challenging behavior and personal and family relationships; rehabilitating long-stay patients with stroke, head or spinal cord injury, chronic pain or illness by provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy.
Rehabilitation nursing is a philosophy of care, not a work setting or a phase of treatment. Rehab nurses helps individuals affected by chronic illness or physical disability to adapt to the disabilities, achieve their greatest potential, and work toward productive, independent lives. Soon after the onset of a disabling injury or chronic illness they continue to provide support in the form of patient and family education and empower these individuals when they go home or return to work or school. They act as multisystem integrators working with physicians, therapists and family to solve problems and promote patients maximal independence. Rehabilitation nurses act not only as care givers but also as coordinators, collaborators, counselors, and case managers thus giving them a new lease of life. They take a holistic approach to meet patients medical, vocational, educational, environmental and spiritual needs.
Orthotics deals with the use of specialized mechanical devices to support or to supplement weakened or abnormal joints or limbs. Orthosis are required by patients with nerves injuries, muscle weakness / paralysis, fractures, musculoskeletal deformities and soft tissue injuries of spine and limbs. Prosthetics deals with the design, construction, and attachment of artificial limbs or other systems to assume the function of missing body parts. Prosthesis for required for patients with amputations of hand, forearm, arm, foot, ankle, leg and thigh.