Hepatitis Blog 2021

All About Hepatitis

Jul 28th, 2021

Archive for July, 2021

All About Hepatitis

Wednesday, July 28th, 2021

Approximately 325 million people worldwide are living with viral hepatitis B and C and the disease also causes many untimely deaths. Out of this, approximately 40 million patients with hepatitis B are from India. Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. Inflammation is swelling that happens when tissues of the body are injured or infected and can damage your liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

The most common symptoms of hepatitis include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, light-coloured stools, joint pain, and jaundice. Consult a doctor for further investigation if you experience any of these symptoms.

Types of Hepatitis

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E are viral illnesses of the liver. Hepatitis A is always a short-term, acute infection, but hepatitis B, C, and D are more likely to become chronic and persistent. Hepatitis E is usually severe, but it can be very deadly for women who are pregnant.

  • Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis A is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This type of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by faeces from an infected person.
  • Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
    A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, including:
    • Unprotected sex.
    • Sharing dirty needles.
    • Being in direct contact with infected blood.
    • Being transferred from mother to unborn child.
  • Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis C comes from the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact. A person can get hepatitis C from:
    • Sharing dirty needles.
    • Being in direct contact with infected blood.
    • Unprotected sex.
  • Hepatitis D
    This is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). It is contracted through direct contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that only occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis D virus can’t multiply without the presence of hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis E
    Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). It is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting faecal matter that contaminates the water supply. You can get hepatitis E by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the virus.

Myths and Facts – Hepatitis

Myth: Women with hepatitis should abstain from breastfeeding their babies to avoid passing the infection.
Fact: Hepatitis C and B are not transmitted through breast milk. Although, there is a risk of transmission through cracked nipples. In such a scenario you must speak to your doctor for further assistance.

Myth: People who have hepatitis B or C should not have children because they will pass it on to them.
Fact: That is not true, people with hepatitis B or C can have healthy babies. Timely precautions during pregnancy, adequate testing, and prompt immunization of the baby after birth can stop the spread of hepatitis.

Myth: Your symptoms indicate the type hepatitis you have.
Fact: Patients with hepatitis may show jaundice-like symptoms of loss of appetite, yellow coloured urine, and vomiting. The type of virus can be differentiated only by blood tests.

Myth: Vaccine can protect against all types of Hepatitis.
Fact: Vaccines are available only against Hepatitis A and B.

Treatment at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital

Concerned about recurrent bouts of jaundice? It is time you get a complete liver check-up done and rule out any signs of hepatitis. Doctors at our Department of  Hepato Pancreato Biliary are trained to detect and treat all types of hepatitis. Be it consultations or hospitalizations we are here to help our patients with comprehensive hepatitis care. For further information, please visit: https://www.kokilabenhospital.com/departments/clinicaldepartments/hepatopancreatobiliary.html

Childhood Developmental Disorders

Friday, July 23rd, 2021

Have you ever wondered why some children have unusual physical characteristics or have delayed development? Childhood disorders, often known as developmental disorders, refer to a range of problems characterised by impairments in physical, learning, language, or behaviour areas. These conditions usually begin during childhood, have an impact on day-to-day functioning, and usually last for the rest of a person’s life.

Most children with developmental disabilities are often affected in multiple domains of function because of the nature and extent of brain dysfunction. As a parent, if you feel that your child is not meeting his/her age-appropriate milestones, or if you think there could be a problem with the way your child plays, learns, speaks, acts, or moves, talk to your child’s paediatrician and explain your concerns. Acting early can help in early intervention and can make a great difference.

Common Developmental Disorders

  • Cognitive Disabilities
    Cognitive disabilities in children include mental retardation as well as specific learning disabilities in children. Mental retardation is characterised as a condition in which a person’s intelligence is below average and their adaptive behaviour is impaired. Mild mental retardation is known to limit the child’s academic performance while more severe grades occur with multiple disabilities.
  • Motor Disabilities
    Motor disabilities include limitations in walking and in the use of the upper extremities (arms and/or hands). Some motor disabilities also affect speech and swallowing of the child. Severity can range from mild to profound. Motor disabilities diagnosed in infancy or childhood include cerebral palsy, congenital abnormalities or progressive disorders, such as the muscular dystrophies and spinal the muscular atrophies.
  • Vision, hearing and speech disabilities
    A number of cases of visual as well as hearing disability have their onset early in life. Learning to speak depends on the ability to hear and repeat sounds. The optimal period for speech acquisition is the first 2 years of life; any further delay may indicate a speech disorder. It is recommended to screen young children for hearing impairment or speech delay early and evaluate any suspected disabilities.
  • Behavioural Disorders
    The majority of children with psychological or behavioural disorders go undiagnosed or untreated and this is more prevalent in developing countries. Anxiety disorders, depression, autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are examples of behavioural diseases that need further investigation. These illnesses can have a significant impact on the child’s overall development if left untreated. 

Types of Developmental Disorders                

Childhood developmental disabilities are sometimes diagnosed at birth, but more often, are not easily identified until ages three to six. They may range from mild to severe depending on their symptoms. Some of the more common developmental disabilities include:

  • Autism
    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment in reciprocal social interactions and communication skills, as well as the presence of restricted and stereotypical behaviours.
  • ADHD
    ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and disorganization, with or without hyperactivity-impulsivity, causing impairment of functioning.
  • Cerebral palsy
    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone or posture. It’s caused by damage that occurs to the immature brain as it develops, most often before birth.
  • Down syndrome
    Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. Depending on the severity of the disorder, it may cause lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays in individuals.
  • Fragile X syndrome
    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited genetic disease passed down from parents to children that causes intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • Genetic disorders
    A chromosomal disorder may be inherited or may be sporadic, meaning there is no family history.
  • Spina bifida
    Spina bifida is a condition that affects the spine and is usually apparent at birth. It is a type of neural tube defect (NTD) that results in damage to the spinal cord and nerves.
  • Muscular Dystrophy
    Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle.
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome
    VCFS, is a complex syndrome that has been associated with more than 30 different characteristics, including defects of the palate, heart defects, learning disabilities and distinct facial features.
  • Intellectual disability
    Intellectual disability is a generalized disorder that is characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviours.

Developmental Disorders: Risk factors

Developmental impairments can occur at any time throughout childhood and endure for the rest of a person’s life. The majority of developmental problems start before a baby is born, but some can occur after delivery due to injury, infection, or other circumstances. Most developmental disabilities are thought to be caused by a complex mix of factors. These factors include genetics; parental health and behaviours (such as smoking and drinking) during pregnancy; complications during birth; infections the mother might have during pregnancy or exposure of the mother or child to high levels of environmental toxins.

Treatment at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital

Highly trained specialists at our Centre for Neurosciences help diagnose childhood developmental disorders early. Therapists at our Department for Developmental Disorders work closely with children to foster their overall development and make them as independent as possible. Our multidisciplinary team across various departments aims to provide world-class comprehensive care to children suffering from developmental disabilities. For further information, please visit our website:

Common Monsoon Diseases

Saturday, July 17th, 2021

Looking forward to get wet on a rainy day? Or are you afraid of contracting monsoon diseases? The monsoon season in India is lovely, but it brings with it a host of viral and bacterial infections and disorders. Infected bacteria and viruses produce monsoon diseases, which can be avoided by adopting safety measures. Individuals with a weakened immune system and poor digestive health are more susceptible to viral and bacterial infections. Certain monsoon illnesses may need hospitalization and may prove fatal too. It is important to be aware of common monsoon illnesses and take precautions to stay safe and protected.

Common Monsoon Diseases

During the monsoon, your chances of contracting various viruses, germs, and other diseases are two times higher than during any other season. The high moisture content in the air encourages the growth of harmful microorganisms, resulting in the spread of a variety of diseases. Many of these monsoon diseases go undiagnosed and untreated until they have a major impact on your health. Early diagnosis and basic preventive and hygiene measures can keep you safe and healthy during the monsoon. Some of the most common monsoon diseases include:

  • Cold and Flu
    The drastic fluctuation of temperature which happens during this rainy season makes the body susceptible to bacterial and viral attacks, resulting in cold and flu. This is the most common form of viral infection, consumption of a healthy and nutritious diet and staying hydrated helps strengthen your immunity.
  • Viral fever
    Viral fever is another common monsoon disease that may cause the body temperature to rise as high as 104 °F and trigger many related problems such as constant sneezing, sore throat and even breathing problems.
  • Malaria
    Malaria, caused by a single-celled parasite called Plasmodium, is one of the major health concerns in India during monsoons. It is the breeding season for mosquitoes Anopheles minimus that is a host to this malaria-causing parasite. It is accompanied by a high fever and shivering.
  • Dengue
    Dengue causing Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in stagnant water (such as in buckets, drums, flower pots). Dengue symptoms are high fever, low platelet count, rashes, hypersensitivity amongst other things. The incubation period of dengue fever is four to seven days after being bitten.
  • Chikungunya
    Chikungunya, caused by the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a non-fatal viral disease. The disease is known to show distinct arthritic symptoms that include pain in the joints and bones, and stiffness.
  • Cholera
    This is a water-borne infection, caused by many strains of bacteria called Vibrio cholera. Cholera affects the gastrointestinal tract causing severe dehydration and diarrhoea. Follow high standards of hygiene, drink boiled water and eat homemade food.
  • Diarrhoea
    This widespread bowel disease is caused due to the consumption of unhygienic foods and water. Diarrhoea is a highly preventable and treatable disease if the required health precautions are followed.
  • Typhoid
    Typhoid fever is a result of contaminated food and water. This is yet another bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi. Maintaining proper hygiene and sanitation and at the same time using clean water is recommended. Fever, headache, weakness, pain and sore throat are some symptoms of typhoid. Stay away from street food and drink boiled water.
  • Leptospirosis
    This is caused due to contact with dirty water or mud during the monsoons. It is spread from the urine or faces of infected animals when you walk through flooded areas.
  • Jaundice
    Jaundice, a water-borne disease is contracted through contaminated food and water, and poor sanitation. It causes liver dysfunction, along with symptoms like weakness and fatigue, yellow urine, yellowing of eyes, and vomiting. Consume only boiled drinking water to avoid stomach infections

Monsoon Diseases – Preventive Measures

1. Here are a few tips to stay safe from mosquito-borne diseases:

  • Use mosquito nets in your house.
  • Don’t allow water to stagnate or collect anywhere in and around the house.
  • Maintain high personal hygiene.
  • Keep your surroundings clean.
  • Use mosquito repellents if required.
  • Wear clothes with full sleeves while stepping outdoors.

2. Here are a few tips to stay safe from water-borne and food-borne diseases:

  • Boil your drinking water regularly.
  • Wash you fruits and vegetables thoroughly before consumption.
  • Keep your foods covered at all times and avoid consumption of street food.
  • Make sure food is prepared in a safe manner.
  • Ensure high levels of personal hygiene.
  • Get your children vaccinated as per schedule.

3. Here are a few tips to stay safe from air-borne diseases:

  • Cover your mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water frequently.
  • Use a hand sanitizer when outdoors.
  • Stay away from sick individuals.
  • Ensure your homes are well-ventilated at all times.

Make sure you protect yourself and your family from these dangerous diseases this monsoon season. In case you develop symptoms of any of the monsoon illnesses, do seek medical care at the earliest. Timely testing helps in early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Doctors at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital are available to assist you with simple as well as complex health concerns. Call 022 42696969 for appointments. Please find the below website link for further details: https://www.kokilabenhospital.com